Publications & Detection Papers
LIGO Laboratory staff author articles on a wide range of subjects, including:
 Detectionspecific papers
 Astrophysics
 Data analysis techniques
 The physics of the detectors and related precision measurement topics
 Instrument science tricks and techniques
 Engineering studies and results
Articles are often written with members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) or in conjunction with the greater scientific community. In addition, we draft non or lesstechnical Science Summaries of many of these and other papers. Many Science Summaries have also been translated into multiple languages.
Below, we list a selection of papers about the LIGO detectors and specific GW detections and their interpretation. LIGO Public Access links (i.e., those not requiring an institutional affiliation) are included where available. The LVK are searching for many other types of GW signals too and look forward to reporting them when discovered. The full list of papers published by LVK can be found at LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA Publications.
Notable Events Discovered in O4  May 24, 2023   
GW230529  Discovery Paper NEW! Published: April 4, 2024  Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5  4.5 M_{☉} Compact Object and a Neutron Star arXiv: 2404.04248  LIGO Public Access: P2300352 
Notable Events Discovered in O3  Apr 1, 2019  Mar 26, 2020  
GW200105 and GW200115 
Discovery Paper  Observation of gravitational waves from two neutron starblack hole coalescences Astrophys. J. Lett. 915, L5 (2021) arXiv: 2106.15163  LIGO Public Access: P2000357 
GW190814  Discovery Paper  GW190814: Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 23 Solar Mass Black Hole with a 2.6 Solar Mass Compact Object Astrophys. J. Lett. 896, L44 (2020) arXiv: 2006.12611  LIGO Public Access: P190814 
GW190521  Discovery Paper Companion Paper 
GW190521: A Binary Black Hole Merger with a Total Mass of 150 Msun Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 101102 (2020) arXiv: 2009.01075  LIGO Public Access: P2000020 
Properties and astrophysical implications of the 150 Msun binary black hole merger GW190521 Astrophys. J. Lett. 900, L13 (2020) arXiv: 2009.01190  LIGO Public Access: P2000021 
GW190425  Discovery Paper  GW190425: Observation of a compact binary coalescence with total mass ~3.4 Msun Astrophys. J. Lett. 892, L3 (2020) arXiv: 2001.01761  LIGO Public Access: P190425 
GW190412  Discovery Paper  GW190412: Observation of a BinaryBlackHole Coalescence with Asymmetric Masses Phys. Rev. D 102, 043015 (2020) arXiv: 2004.08342  LIGO Public Access: P190412 
Notable Events Discovered in O2  Nov 30, 2016  Aug 25, 2017  
GW170817  Discovery Paper Select Companion Papers 
Observation of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 161101 (2017) arXiv: 1710.05832  LIGO Public Access: P170817 
MultiMessenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L12 (2017) arXiv: 1710.05833  LIGO Public Access: P1700294 

Gravitational Waves and GammaRays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L13 (2017) arXiv: 1710.05834  LIGO Public Access: P1700308 

Properties of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 Phys. Rev. X 9, 011001 (2019) arXiv: 1805.11579  LIGO Public Access: P1800061 

Tests of General Relativity with GW170817 Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 011102 (2019) arXiv: 1811.00364  LIGO Public Access (pending): P1800059 

A gravitationalwave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant Nature 551, 85 (2017) arXiv: 1710.05835  LIGO Public Access: P1700296 
GW170814  Discovery Paper  GW170814: A ThreeDetector Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Coalescence Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 141101 (2017) arXiv: 1709.09660  LIGO Public Access: P170814 
GW170608  Discovery Paper  GW170608: Observation of a 19solarmass binary black hole coalescence Astrophys. J. Lett. 851, L35 (2017) arXiv: 1711.05578  LIGO Public Access: P170608 
GW170104  Discovery Paper  GW170104: Observation of a 50solarmass binary black hole coalescence at redshift 0.2 Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221101 (2017) arXiv: 1706.01812  LIGO Public Access: P170104 
Notable Events Discovered in O1  Sep 18, 2015  Jan 12, 2016  
GW151226  Discovery Paper  GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22SolarMass Binary Black Hole Coalescence Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241103 (2016) arXiv: 1606.04855  LIGO Public Access: P151226 
GW150914 *First detection 
Discovery Paper Select Companion Papers 
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016) arXiv: 1602.03837  LIGO Public Access: P150914 
Properties of the binary black hole merger GW150914 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016) arXiv: 1602.03840  LIGO Public Access: P1500218 

Tests of general relativity with GW150914 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 221101 (2016) arXiv: 1602.03841  LIGO Public Access: P1500213 

Astrophysical Implications of the Binary BlackHole Merger GW150914 Astrophys. J. Lett. 818, L22 (2016) arXiv: 1602.03846  LIGO Public Access: P1500262 

Improved analysis of GW150914 using a fully spinprecessing waveform model Phys. Rev. X 6, 041014 (2016) arXiv: 1606.01210  LIGO Public Access: P1600048 

The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914 Annalen der Physik 529, 1600209 (2017) arXiv: 1608.01940  LIGO Public Access: P1600161 
The Advanced LIGO Detectors  Advanced LIGO Classical and Quantum Gravity 32, 074001 (2015) arXiv: 1411.4547  LIGO Public Access: P1400177 
Guides to Open Data and Analysis Methods  Open data from the third observing run of LIGO, Virgo, KAGRA and GEO Astrophys. J. Supp. 267, 29 (2023) arXiv: 2302.03676  LIGO Public Access: P2200316 
A guide to LIGOVirgo detector noise and extraction of transient gravitationalwave signals Classical and Quantum Gravity 37, 055002 (2020) arXiv: 1908.11170  LIGO Public Access: P1900004 

Open data from the first and second observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo SoftwareX 13, 100658 (2021) arXiv: 1912.11716  LIGO Public Access: P1900206 
Papers Describing the Gravitational Wave Transient Catalog (updated periodically)  GWTC3: Compact Binary Coalescences Observed by LIGO and Virgo During the Second Part of the Third Observing Run Phys. Rev. X 13, 041039 (2023) arXiv: 2111.03606  LIGO Public Access (pending): P2000318 
GWTC2.1: Deep Extended Catalog of Compact Binary Coalescences Observed by LIGO and Virgo During the First Half of the Third Observing Run Phys. Rev. D 109, 022001 (2024) arXiv: 2108.01045  LIGO Public Access: P2100063 

GWTC2: Compact Binary Coalescences Observed by LIGO and Virgo during the First Half of the Third Observing Run Phys. Rev. X 11, 021053 (2021) arXiv: 2010.14527  LIGO Public Access: P2000061 

GWTC1: A GravitationalWave Transient Catalog of Compact Binary Mergers Observed by LIGO and Virgo during the First and Second Observing Runs Phys. Rev. X 9, 031040 (2019) arXiv: 1811.12907  LIGO Public Access: P1800307 
Papers Characterizing the Population of GW Sources  Population of merging compact binaries inferred using gravitational waves through GWTC3 Phys. Rev. X 13, 011048 (2023) arXiv: 2111.03634  LIGO Public Access (pending): P2100239 
Population properties of compact objects from the second LIGOVirgo GravitationalWave Transient Catalog Astrophys. J. Lett. 913, L7 (2021) arXiv: 2010.14533  LIGO Public Access (pending): P2000077 

Binary Black Hole Population Properties Inferred from the First and Second Observing Runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo Astrophys. J. Lett. 882, L24 (2019) arXiv: 1811.12940  LIGO Public Access: P1800324 
Tests of General Relativity Using GW Events  Tests of General Relativity with GWTC3 Phys. Rev. D in press arXiv: 2112.06861  LIGO Public Access: P2100275 
Tests of general relativity with binary black holes from the second LIGOVirgo gravitationalwave transient catalog Phys. Rev. D 103, 122002 (2021) arXiv: 2010.14529  LIGO Public Access (pending): P2000091 

Tests of General Relativity with GW170817 Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 011102 (2019) arXiv: 1811.00364  LIGO Public Access (pending): P1800059 

Tests of general relativity with the binary black hole signals from the LIGOVirgo catalog GWTC1 Phys. Rev. D 100, 104036 (2019) arXiv: 1903.04467  LIGO Public Access: P1800316 

Tests of general relativity with GW150914 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 221101 (2016) arXiv: 1602.03841  LIGO Public Access: P1500213 